Chelyabinsk (Russian: Челябинск; IPA: [tɕɪˈlʲæbʲɪnsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast, 210 kilometers (130 mi) south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia. Population: 1,130,132 (2010 Census);1,077,174 (2002 Census);1,141,777 (1989 Census).
Shortly after dawn on February 15, 2013, a superbolide meteor descended at over 55,000 kilometers per hour (34,000 mph) over the Ural Mountains, exploding at an altitude of 25–30 kilometers (16–19 mi) in a momentary flash as bright as the sun and generating a shock wave that injured over a thousand people. Fragments fell in and around Chelyabinsk. Interior Ministry spokesmanVadim Kolesnikov said 1,100 people had called for medical assistance following the incident, mostly for treatment of injuries from glass broken by the explosions. One woman suffered a broken spine. Kolesnikov also said about 600 square meters (6,000 sq ft) of a roof at a zinc factory had collapsed. A spokeswoman for the Emergency Ministry told the Associated Press that there was a meteor shower, but another ministry spokeswoman was quoted by the Interfax news agency as saying it was a single meteor.The size has been estimated at 17 meters (56 ft) diameter with a mass of 10,000 or 11,000 tonnes. The power of the explosion was about 500 kilotons of TNT (about 1,8 PJ), which is 20-30 times more energy than was released from the atomic bomb exploded in Hiroshima. Only thanks to the high altitude of the explosion did the city manage to avoid large casualties and destruction.
Geography and сlimate
Chelyabinsk is located east of the Ural Mountains, 199 km south of Yekaterinburg. Elevation — 200–250 meters. Geological location — Western — Ural (granites), the eastern part — Western Siberia (sedimentary rock).
The city is located on the border of the Urals and Siberia, for which it received the name «Gateway to Siberia».The «Leningrad» bridge connects the «Ural» and «Siberian» sides of the river Miass, so it is called the «bridge of the Urals to Siberia.» Strictly by the Urals and Siberia border of the road from the «Meridian».
The city stands on the river Miass.
The relief of the city is slightly hilly on the west, which gradually descends to the east. Interestingly, Chelyabinsk, like Rome, Constantinople, and Moscow, is located on seven hills.
The architecture of the Chelyabinsk is determined by the change of historical eras in the development of Russia. Before the revolution of 1917 the city was a trading centre, with numerous merchant buildings in style eclecticism and modern with elements Russian Revival architecture, they are stored on a pedestrian street Chelyabinsk “Kirovka”.
From the late 20-ies industrialization started. The construction of large plants was accompanied by the construction of a brand new residential and public buildings in the style of constructivism. Entire neighborhoods built in the style of constructivism can be seen in the area of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (CTZ, ChTZ).
Since the late 30-ies in the city came a new era associated with construction of monumental buildings in the Stalinist architecture. It is in this style is constructed in substantially the center of the city of Chelyabinsk and central avenue.
With 60 years in the city was conducted intensive housing construction tower blocks. During this period the city had reached a population of one million people, and on his map there is such a large residential area as the «Severo-Zapad» (English: North-West).
Since the 90-ies, market reforms, the city began an intensive construction of office buildings for business and major shopping malls in style postmodern architecture and high-tech.
The city has several libraries, including Chelyabinsk Regional Universal Scientific Library, with more than 2 million books, including more than 12,000 rare books and monuments (17th to 19th centuries), is the largest public library in the Chelyabinsk oblast.
Chelyabinsk is home to several popular theaters: Chelyabinsk State Academic Drama Theatre named Nahum Orlov, Chelyabinsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre named Glinka, Chelyabinsk State Chamber Theater Drama, Chelyabinsk State Puppet Theater, Chelyabinsk State Youth Theatre, Theater «Mannequin», Chelyabinsk New Arts Theatre, Chelyabinsk Contemporary Dance Theatre.
There are nine museums in Chelyabinsk. Chelyabinsk regional museum was founded in 1913, and holds about 300 thousand exhibits. There are expositions of the ancient settlement Arkaim age 3rd to 2nd millennium BC relating to the «Land of Cities», the largest fragment of the Chelyabinsk meteor, weighing 570 kg, famous decorated edged weapons of the 19th and 20th centuries, made by Zlatoust arms factory, exhibits Kasli artistic cast iron and much more. Chelyabinsk Region Picture Gallery has more than 11,000 works. Meeting up collections of art in Europe and the East (International Art), the national art of the Middle Ages, modern and contemporary, modern art. The peculiarity of the meeting are collections of icons (16th to 20th centuries), early printed books and manuscripts. The museum of railway equipment of the South Ural railway presented more than 30 exhibits of vehicles used on the rail after it in Chelyabinsk in 1892.
In addition, the city has the Chelyabinsk regional geological museum, museum of military glory of labor and the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant, Museum postal service Chelyabinsk region, entertaining science museum «Eksperimentus».
Chelyabinsk Zoo — Zoological Park, located in the central region of Chelyabinsk. On an area of 30 hectares there are more than 110 species, of which more than 80 listed in the Red List. Zoo participates in international programs for the conservation of endangered species, including Amur (Siberian) tigers, Far Eastern leopards and Polar bears. The zoo regular sightseeing tours, lectures, exhibitions and celebrations.
City also has a circus building.
In Chelyabinsk has Concert Hall. Prokofiev Hall of organ and chamber music with organ-known German company «Hermann Eule». The tool consists of 2504 pipes, 37 registers, three manuals and pedal keyboard. His sound is a rare gentleness and generosity sound basic votes. Chelyabinsk body many artists considered to be one of the best in Russia and Europe.
In the city of Chelyabinsk are several churches built in the 19th to 21st centuries.
Hotels in Chelyabinsk